In recent years Germany has been presented as the exemplar western liberal democracy. Their recent election saw increased turnout, almost 10% higher than the 2019 UK General Election. Chancellor Merkel’s Conservative CDU/CSU party has led ‘GroKo’ – Grand Coalition governments with the Social Democrats for twelve of the last sixteen years. This coalition between the largest parties is difficult to imagine elsewhere, especially in the UK. Finally, in response to the 2015 Refugee Crisis, Germans accepted over a million refugees, whilst the UK pledged to take 20,000. Thus, it’s easy to assume Germany’s engaged, consensus politics and democratic culture as permanent and inevitable
The Gaelic revival refers to the revival of interest in the Irish language and Irish Gaelic culture. While this broad movement emerged as early as the 1840s, it rapidly gained traction in the late nineteenth century. A variety of organisations espoused this revival, for example by promoting Gaelic literature or traditional sports.
In 1864, the first Contagious Diseases Act was introduced which aimed to tackle the rapid spreading of venereal diseases (VD) in garrison towns and ports in Britain. However, the legislation only policed women who were suspected of being prostitutes, forcing them to be sexually examined; if their tests came back positive, they could face legal consequences such as imprisonment.
Punk’s Do-It-Yourself ethic was transformative. It would be hard to align Punk with any specific political persuasion as affiliations with the sound run as far and wide as the political spectrum itself. Therefore, one must evaluate Punk broadly, locating its revolutionary dimension in the Do-It-Yourself ethos. As a result, Punk inspired political engagement, musical creativity, and a myriad of sub-genres, whilst maintaining an ethos that transcended stylistic and musical boundaries.
In Shakespeare’s day, theatre was intended for all realms of society; the upper and lower classes experienced the same masterpiece, albeit through financially segregated seating zones. Strangely, with the birth of cinema and the inevitable birth of Shakespearean cinematic depictions, this intentional accessibility vanished – Shakespeare became a product of high culture, intended for a demographic of well-cultured thespians and critics. Perhaps due to presumptions about the capability of the uneducated population to understand Elizabethan theatre, individuals outside of these parameters were no longer expected to enjoy Shakespeare.
However, 90s cinema sought to challenge this.