The Semantics of Conflict: What Were The Troubles? by Emma Bower

On the 14th of August 1969, British troops arrived in Northern Ireland in what would come to be their longest deployment in modern history. Though heralded as the day the Troubles began, the origins of this thirty-year conflict are rooted in the conception of Northern Ireland as a state: a tale of British colonialism, sectarian oppression, and nationalistic pride.

Ethnic relations and tensions under Tito: What kept the country together? by Grace Swiatek

Josip Broz Tito’s efforts to unify Yugoslavia were instrumental in prolonging the life of the state. After his death, Yugoslavia changed dramatically. His personality and policies were vital in creating uniting and generating a sense of community between the nations that made up the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.